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  • Abstract
    See meta data.
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  • Acceptable use policy
    A policy set up by the network administrator or other organization leaders to address technology needs and safety concerns that defines the manner in which a network may be used.
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  • Access control
    A security service that regulates the use of system resources according to a security policy and permits their use only by authorized entities (users, programs, processes, or other systems in a network). Firewalls are often referred to as access control devices between networks.
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  • Accountability
    The ability of an interactive service to provide verification of monthly readership and interaction. This data can be sorted by age, sex, or residence. Accountability requires media departments to set performance expectations, so on-line ad placements can be evaluated.
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  • ACL (Access Control List)
    A list that defines the privileges granted to each user.
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  • Acquiring bank
    In the course of the credit card payment process, the bank with which the merchant holds an account and which credits the merchant's account. See also issuing bank.
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  • Adaptive
    Describing the ability to react to change; in a network, adaptability allows the network to function despite changes in the environment.
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  • Adaptive branding
    The process of delivering a personalized brand message via a consumer database and an interactive system. Through adaptive branding, marketers can deliver messages formed around the priorities of individual consumers.
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  • Ad Hoc Network
    A decentralized wireless network in which each node is capable of forwarding data to other nodes without relying on an established access point. An ad hoc network can be created spontaneously as needed and requires no permanent infrastructure.
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  • Alias
    A hostname that replaces another hostname; similar to a nickname. Hostnames can have aliases which are other names for the same Internet address. Hostname aliases often indicate that the host with that alias provides a particular network service. For example, www.mycompany.com could be an alias for server03.mycompany.com.
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  • ALT
    An alternative label. Used in an HTML tag for the benefit of people using nongraphical browsers, or for people using a browser with graphics turned off.
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  • Anchor
    An HTML tag that specifies links to text or images on the same page or to a specific location on a different page.
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  • Anonymous
    With no traceability; unable to ascertain the actual identity of the claimed identity; very likely to imply naming that is intentionally opaque. Also, without authentication.
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  • Anonymous FTP
    Service supported by many Internet hosts. Typically, allows user to download documents, files, programs, and other publicly accessible data using FTP. Users log in using the special user name "ftp" or "anonymous" and their e-mail address as password. May also support uploading of files.
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  • Antialiasing
    Using software to create a smooth transition between the pixels at the edge of a graphic and the surrounding pixels.
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  • API (Application Program Interface)
    Often defined as either an "application programmer's interface" or an "application programming interface." More precisely, a standardized and documented set of protocols and data structures. An API supports consistent interfacing by external software applications to primary software systems.
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  • Applet
    A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. Applets differ from full-fledged Java applications in that they are not allowed to access certain resources on the local computer, such as files and serial devices (modems, printers, etc.), and are prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network.
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  • Archie
    A method of searching for files on anonymous FTP servers.
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  • Archive
    Storage of document versions kept for historical or reference purposes. Each document is assigned a version number when entered into an archive.
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  • ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
    A former U.S. government research entity, now DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
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  • ARPAnet
    Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, a pioneer packet-switched network that BBN designed and built in the early 1970s under contract to the U.S. government, and that led to the development of today's Internet. The ARPANET remained in use until June 1990.
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  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
    The ANSI and ISO supported standard for world-wide representation of upper and lower-case Latin letters, numbers, punctuation, special characters, etc, in computerized data transmissions and operations. Includes 128 unique ASCII codes, each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number in the range from 0000000 through 1111111. ASCII text is a subset of the ASCII character set consisting principally of the printable characters. HTML documents are sent as ASCII files with tags that are interpreted by Web browsers to display the content.
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  • Attachment
    A document or file in its native format (Word, Excel, GIF, etc.) that is "attached" to an e-mail message or discussion group posting, or uploaded to a document management system.
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  • Attribute
    A fragment of information that characterizes an HTML element, specified inside the element's start tag. For example, in the start tag < A href="/info.htm" >, the anchor HTML element, specified by the 'a' at the beginning of the tag, is further characterized by the value of the href attribute, which specifies the destination of the hyperlink.
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  • Audio Mining
    Searching an archive of recorded audio as easily as you can search a text archive. This kind of application is enabled by a suite of speech and language technologies that combine to build an audio archive that contains information about the words, speakers, concepts and topics being talked about. Audio mining eliminates the need to listen for hours to locate information. It is embodied in BBN's Rough'n'ReadyTM system.
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  • Authentication
    The process of verifying to a reasonable degree of certainty that an entity (for example, a person, a corporation, or a computer system) is the entity it represents itself to be.
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  • Authoring tools
    A software application that enables programmers (authors) to integrate multimedia components into an interactive application.
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  • Authorization
    The process of granting a right or a permission to access a system resource. Usually, authorization is in the context of authentication; once a user 's identity has been authenticated, that user is enabled to perform for different types of access or activity for which he is authorized.
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  • Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR)
    A technology that allows a computer to identify the words that a person speaks into a microphone or telephone.
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